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The Dwarf Sicilian Elephant (Elephas Palaeoloxodon falconeri) was a species of Proboscidea from Pleistocene Sicily. This elephant was only 5 feet long. This elephant is a prime example of insular dwarfism on islands. Another elephant that demonstrated insular dwarfism was the Channel Islands Dwarf Mammoth (Mammuthus exilis). The Straight-Tusked Elephant, Palaeoloxodon antiquus is considered to be the ancestor of this species. The Dwarf Sicilian Elephant lived in the Mediterranean region during the last Ice Age. Individual bones and large skeletons of this species are found fairly often. It is possible that the finds of the skulls of the Dwarf Sicilian Elephant started the myths of Polyphemus and the other Cyclopes (one-eyed giants) as the nasal opening in the middle of the skull can be easily mistaken for an eye socket instead.

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